Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from forest sites differing in distance from big fur farms emitting large amounts of ammonia and ammonium (=NH(y)) were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Specific features indicating an ammonium-nitrogen overload, such as an abundance of needle surface organisms and modifications in cellular and wax structures, were classified. Throughout the study area (up to 1000 m from the farms), mesophyll cells had thin cytoplasm and folding plasmalemma indicating frost damage. Phloem damage attributable to a possible nutrient imbalance was also observed. Chloroplast membranes were undulating and the occurrence of leaf surface organisms (e.g. aerophilic algae) was more abundant at the closest sites. The changes were related both to the direct effects of dry NH(y) deposition on the needles, and to the effects operating via soil acidification. The needle epicuticular waxes proved to be structurally rather inert against the influence of ammonium compounds, since no significant changes due to NH(y) were observed.
|Julkaisu||Water, Air, & Soil Pollution|
|Tila||Julkaistu - 1997|
|OKM-julkaisutyyppi||A1 Vertaisarvioitu alkuperäisartikkeli|
- Kasvibiologia, mikrobiologia, virologia