Birding specialization can be measured alongside a continuum from the beginner to the specialist. The structure of birding specialization has three dimensions: (1) skill/knowledge, (2) behavior, and (3) psychological commitment. We tested the factorial structure and factorial invariance of the birding specialization scale in traditional and simplified Chinese, Finnish, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, and Spanish birders. A total of 2,913 (32% women) birdwatchers participated in this study. In all languages, the hierarchical factorial structure with three sub-factors and one general factor was satisfactory. We found support for configural invariance in all languages, metric invariance in some language comparisons, but no support for scalar invariance. Therefore, the construct can be applied in all languages, but comparisons of means should be done with caution. Further translation should try to seek the same configural invariance, but also aim for metric and scalar invariance.
- Ekologia, evoluutiobiologia