Unlawfully Obtained Evidence, Cross-Border Law Enforcement Operations and Borderless Networks

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


In certain jurisdictions, national evidence law rules may prohibit the use of illegally or unlawfully gathered evidence in criminal proceedings, or at least give the court the possibility to exclude illegally gathered evidence under certain circumstances. However, when it comes to cross-border investigative measures in the global and borderless network environment, it may not always be clear what “unlawfully obtained” or “illegally obtained” actually means. This paper discusses the different possible meanings of illegality/unlawfulness in the context of such investigative operations. The discussion is based on the examples of Finnish law and case law pertaining to evidence derived from the supposedly secure ANOM messaging application, widely used by criminals, in the international law enforcement operation known as Operation Trojan Shield/Greenlight.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRechtsinformatik als Methodenwissenschaft des Rechts
Subtitle of host publicationTagungsband des 26. Internationalen Rechtsinformatik Symposions IRIS 2023
EditorsErich Schweighofer, Jakob Zanol, Stefan Eder
Place of PublicationBern
PublisherEditions Weblaw
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)978-3-98595-714-9
Publication statusPublished - 2023
MoEC publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventInternationale Rechtsinformatik Symposion - Salzburg, Austria
Duration: 22 Feb 202325 Feb 2023

Publication series

SeriesEditions Weblaw II, Colloquium


OtherInternationale Rechtsinformatik Symposion
Internet address


  • Criminal Investigations
  • Law Enforcement
  • International Co-operation
  • Evidence
  • Exclusionary Rules
  • ANOM

Field of science

  • Law


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