Researchers in and beyond higher education

Timo Aarrevaara, Raija Pyykkö

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review


This chapter deals with the research profession working in higher education, government, business enterprise, and non-profit private sectors. Research systems differ significantly in the degree to which their financial instruments are based on competition, in the application of uniform well-established standards and in how evaluation is carried out. In systems based on the Humboldtian tradition, research and teaching are integral university activities, while in the French tradition, separate non-teaching academies have played a significant role. The systems have a significant impact on which institutions the research profession operates in its research and experimental development roles. In different research systems, professions are modified through cross-profession and intra-profession boundaries. Professions generally seek legitimation of their work from an academic knowledge base that is internationalised and from the disciplinary knowledge base.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationResearch Handbook on Academic Careers and Managing Academics
EditorsCláudia Sofia Sarrico Silva, Maria J. Rosa, Maria Teresa Carvalho
PublisherEdward Elgar
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-83910-263-9
ISBN (Print) 978-1-83910-262-2
Publication statusPublished - 12 Apr 2022
MoEC publication typeA3 Part of a book or another research book


  • academic profession
  • non-profit research institutes
  • public funded research institutes
  • research institutes in industry

Field of science

  • Administrative science


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