Human or nonhuman agent? Experiences of empathy in a digital customer tourism journey

Päivi Hanni-Vaara

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review


Digitalisation of services offers several possibilities to enhance the tourism experience as technology is increasingly mediating experiences. Along with the development of the service concept, digital transformation has been extended to services in which the customer may interact with a human agent or a technology-provided nonhuman agent. With digital services increasingly becoming mediating experiences, there is a constant need to balance them with empathetic customer insights to perceive a holistic understanding of each customer’s needs. Empathy is a critical part of ethics and morality because it requires one to experience otherness when acknowledging the perspectives and well-being of others in situations that are not necessarily beneficial to oneself. Technology-provided nonhuman agent services have a significant role in digital transformation where traditional services like data and activities are reformed and new services are developed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEmpathy and Business Transformation
EditorsMelanie Sarantou, Satu Miettinen
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-003-22755-7
ISBN (Print)978-1-032-13076-7, 978-1-032-13078-1
Publication statusPublished - 2022
MoEC publication typeA3 Part of a book or another research book

Field of science

  • Visual arts and design


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