Economic Cyber-Espionage in the Visegrád Four Countries: A Hungarian Perspective

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This article explores the regulatory framework of reference of economic cyber-espionage in Europe, with a particular focus on the V4 region (comprising Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic) and taking Hungary as a case study. Europe Union member states, including the V4 countries, are particularly exposed to economic cyber-espionage, because of the advanced know-how of the companies based therein. Under international law, there exists no uniform approach to the matter; also at the European Union level, the legal framework appears rather fragmented and the same holds true at the national level and within the V4 group, where each country has adopted its own relevant regulation. After a general overview of the relevant international and EU regulatory framework of reference, this article overviews the modus operandi of the V4 and examines its approach to economic cyber-espionage, with a special focus on Hungary as case study. As already remarked at the European and international levels, cybersecurity policies and regulations, including those regarding economic cyber-espionage operations, should be drafted in coordination among states; the V4 group can become a privileged platform of discussion to advance in the regulatory harmonisation of the issues at stake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)697-721
Number of pages25
JournalPolitics in Central Europe
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021
MoEC publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • cyber-security
  • economic cyber-espionage
  • governance
  • Hungary
  • Visegrád Group

Field of science

  • Law


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