Creative and playful learning on technology-enriched playgrounds: an international investigation

Justus Randolph, Marjaana Kangas, Heli Ruokamo, Pirkko Hyvönen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the degree that creative and playful learning (CPL) in a technology-enriched playground influences academic achievement of students and what factors are responsible for successes. The participants were 276 students from 12 elementary classrooms in the Netherlands and Finland. The research used a pretest–posttest, without control design. The dependent variable was academic achievement on teacher-created tests; the independent variable was participation in the intervention; and the control variables were pretest scores, gender, academic subjects previously studied, age, satisfaction with schooling, country of the school, and classroom within the school. The results showed that there were significant gains in academic achievement and that the pretest was the only significant predictor of posttest achievement. Other variables, including gender, academic subjects studied, age, satisfaction with schooling, country of school, and classroom, were not statistically significant predictors of posttest scores. While students’ academic achievements are only one measure of progress in the current debate about learning in the education system, this article provides insight on education through analyses of the relationships among the integration of curriculum-based learning, CPL practices, and outdoor playgrounds.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)409-422
JournalInternactive Learning Environments
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoEC publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • playful learning
  • experimental research
  • creativity
  • technology-enriched playgrounds
  • academic achievement

Field of science

  • General education
  • Media education


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