Birding recreation specialization – A test of the factorial invariance in eight languages

Christoph Randler, Juan F. Diaz-Morales, Jukka Jokimäki, Rául Ortiz-Pulido, Naomi Staller, Maria De Salvo, Piotr Tryjanowski, Jo Szu Tsai, Renan de Almeida Barbosa, Marja Liisa Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debateScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Birding specialization can be measured alongside a continuum from the beginner to the specialist. The structure of birding specialization has three dimensions: (1) skill/knowledge, (2) behavior, and (3) psychological commitment. We tested the factorial structure and factorial invariance of the birding specialization scale in traditional and simplified Chinese, Finnish, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, and Spanish birders. A total of 2,913 (32% women) birdwatchers participated in this study. In all languages, the hierarchical factorial structure with three sub-factors and one general factor was satisfactory. We found support for configural invariance in all languages, metric invariance in some language comparisons, but no support for scalar invariance. Therefore, the construct can be applied in all languages, but comparisons of means should be done with caution. Further translation should try to seek the same configural invariance, but also aim for metric and scalar invariance.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Leisure Research
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Oct 2022
MoEC publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Birding
  • birdwatching
  • measurement
  • recreation specialization

Field of science

  • Ecology, evolutionary biology


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